Sponge Guide

UNCW National Science Foundation Valdosta State University Universidad Nacional de Colombia

Observed Characteristics:


  • yellow
  • purple-violet
  • orange-yellow


  • massive


  • crumbly
  • tough

Sample Locations:

  • Bahamas

Biemna sp.-“yellow tough cushions”

Notes: Small, tough but crumbly and mucosy cushions, with a yellow punctiform surface. Subsuperficial color is dark purple, some specimens thus appearing darker, especially after collecting; internal color cream. Different from Biemna caribea Pulitzer-Finali, 1986 and from B. cribaria (Alcolado & Gotera, 1986), both pictured here. Spicules are styles, 2-3 categories of sigmas, 2 categories of microxea, and raphides. It needs to be compared to Biemna trisigmata Mothes & Campos, 2004, from North Brazil, with which it shares many characters.