Sponge Guide

UNCW National Science Foundation Valdosta State University Universidad Nacional de Colombia

Observed Characteristics:


  • green


  • massive
  • tube


  • tough

Sample Locations:

  • Bahamas

Smenospongia sp.-“parrot green”

Notes: Massive, parrot green exterior, yellow interior. Color becomes dark purple upon exposure to air. Abundant mucus release. Surface with low, regularly scattered blunt protrusions which correspond to the end of groups of primary skeletal fibers. Skeleton of clear, tough, laminated spongin fibers arrranged in a more or less regular reticulation, which is somewhat condensed in the areas that protrude to the surface.The fibers are of similar thickness to those of Smenospongia conulosa Pulitzer-Finali, 1986, also pictured here but the reticulation appears more fine. Fibers are not as wide to those of Smenospongia aurea (Hyatt, 1875). We initially placed this parrot green morphotype as part of the variation of S. conulosa, being dominant in some areas. But as we found this morphotype growing together with S. aurea and S. conulosa, and clearly distinct in color and shape, we decided to place it as a separate, yet unidentified species. The old literature must be searched for a possible available name before deciding whether it is a new, undescribed species. Available names that need to be looked into are S. cerebriformis (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864) and S. musicalis (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864), both redescribed by van Soest (1980), and the former found in cryptic reef habitats by Rützler et al. (2014). This species may be conspecific with Smenospongia echina (de Laubenfels, 1934), also recently found in cryptic reef habitats by Rützler et al., (2014) (as S. cf. echina).