Sponge Guide

UNCW National Science Foundation Valdosta State University Universidad Nacional de Colombia

Observed Characteristics:


  • red
  • orange


  • encrusting


  • soft

Sample Locations:

  • Bahamas

Clathria (Microciona) bulbotoxa

Notes: Thinly encrusting bright red orange, with slighlty evident exhalant canals in a star pattern. The spiculation consists of stout, curved tylostyles 350-480 x 10-15 µm, straight subtylostyles 275-450 µm, toxa bulging towards the center (hence the name bulbotoxa) 45-180 µm, and twisted isochelae 12-15 µm. It is difficult to distinguish it in the field from other bright orange encrusting sponges such as Clathria spinosa Wilson, 1902 or Placospherastra micraster (Lehnert & Heimler, 2001), both pictured here.

Author Reference: van Soest, 1984


Link: World Porifera Database